Octoverse: The state of open source and rise of AI in 2023

Created on November 12, 2023 at 10:20 am

What does it mean for a new technology to go mainstream?

First ORDINAL released in 2005 DATE , Git PERSON was still a new open source version control system when we founded GitHub. Today DATE , Git is a foundational element of the modern developer experience—93% of developers use it to build and deploy software everywhere.

In 2023 DATE , GitHub data highlighted how another technology has quickly begun to reshape the developer experience: AI. This past year DATE , more and more developers started working with AI, while also experimenting with building AI-powered applications. Git has fundamentally changed today DATE ’s developer experience, and now AI ORG is setting the stage for what’s next in software development.

At GitHub ORG , we know developers love to learn by doing and open source helps developers more rapidly adopt new technologies, integrate them into their workflows, and build what’s next. Open source also powers nearly every piece of modern software—including much of the digital economy. As we explore how technologies become mainstream, GitHub continues to play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between experimentation and the widespread adoption of open source technologies, which underpin the foundations of our software ecosystem.

In this year DATE ’s report, we’ll study how open source activity around AI, the cloud, and Git has changed the developer experience and is increasingly driving impact among developers and organizations alike.

We uncover three CARDINAL big trends:

Developers are building with generative AI in big numbers. We’re seeing more developers experiment with foundation models from OpenAI and other AI players, with open source generative AI projects even entering the top 10 CARDINAL most popular open source projects by contributor count in 2023 DATE . With almost all developers ( 92% PERCENT ) using or experimenting with AI coding tools, we expect open source developers to drive the next wave of AI innovation on GitHub.

We’re seeing more developers experiment with foundation models from OpenAI and other AI players, with open source generative AI projects even entering the top 10 CARDINAL most popular open source projects by contributor count in 2023 DATE . With almost all developers ( 92% PERCENT ) using or experimenting with AI coding tools, we expect open source developers to drive the next wave of AI innovation on GitHub. Developers are operating cloud-native applications at scale. We’re seeing an increase in declarative languages using Git-based infrastructure as code ( IaC ORG ) workflows, greater standardization in cloud deployments, and a sharp increase in the rate at which developers were using Dockerfiles PRODUCT and containers, IaC PERSON , and other cloud-native technologies.

We’re seeing an increase in declarative languages using Git-based infrastructure as code ( IaC ORG ) workflows, greater standardization in cloud deployments, and a sharp increase in the rate at which developers were using Dockerfiles PRODUCT and containers, IaC PERSON , and other cloud-native technologies. 2023 DATE saw the largest number of first ORDINAL -time open source contributors. We continue to see commercially backed open source projects capture the largest share of first ORDINAL -time contributors and overall contributions—but this year DATE , we also saw generative AI projects enter the top 10 CARDINAL most popular projects for first ORDINAL -time contributors. We’re also seeing notable growth in private projects on GitHub ORG , which increased 38% PERCENT year over year and account for more than 80% PERCENT of all activity on GitHub.

Kyle Daigle PERSON

Chief Operating Officer // GitHub

💡Oh, and if you’re a visual learner, we have you covered.👇

A global community of developers building on GitHub

Globally, developers are using GitHub to build software and collaborate in larger numbers than ever before—and that spans across public and private projects. This not only proves the foundational value of Git in today DATE ’s developer experience, but also shows the global community of developers using GitHub to build software.

With 20.2 million CARDINAL developers and a 21% PERCENT increase in developer growth over the past year DATE , the U.S. GPE continues to have the largest developer community globally. But since 2013 DATE , we’ve continued to see other communities account for more growth across the platform which we expect to continue. This worldwide distribution of developers on GitHub shows which regions have the most developers.

Who do we consider to be a developer? We define “developer” as anyone with a GitHub account. Why?

The open source and developer communities are an increasingly diverse and global group of people who tinker with code, make non-code contributions, conduct scientific research, and more. GitHub users drive open source innovation, and they work across industries—from software development to data analysis and design.

Developer communities in Asia Pacific LOC , Africa LOC , South America LOC , and Europe LOC are getting bigger year over year—with India GPE , Brazil GPE , and Japan GPE among those leading the pack.

Explore our data with the GitHub Innovation Graph ORG To help researchers build their own insights from GitHub data, we have released the GitHub Innovation Graph ORG . With the GitHub Innovation Graph ORG , researchers, policymakers, and developers can now access valuable data and insights into global developer impact to assess the influence of open source on the global economy. Through a dedicated webpage and repository, it offers quarterly DATE data that dates back to 2020 DATE and includes Git pushes, developers, organizations, repositories, languages, licenses, topics, and economic collaborators.

Explore the GitHub Innovation Graph >

Projecting the top 10 CARDINAL developer communities over the next five years DATE

To understand which developer communities are poised to grow the most over the next five years DATE , we built projections based on current growth rates. Under this rubric, we anticipate that India GPE will overtake the United States GPE as the largest developer community on GitHub by 2027 DATE .

These projections assume linear growth to forecast which developer communities will be the largest on GitHub by 2028 DATE .

Fastest ORG growing developer communities in Asia Pacific LOC

We continue to see considerable growth in the Asia Pacific LOC region driven by economic hubs in India GPE , Japan GPE , and Singapore GPE .

# CARDINAL of developers YoY CARDINAL growth 01 Singapore GPE >1M developers 39% PERCENT 02 India GPE > 13.2 CARDINAL M developers 36% PERCENT 03 Hong Kong GPE (SAR) > 1.6 CARDINAL M developers 35% PERCENT 04 Vietnam GPE > 1.5 CARDINAL M developers 34% PERCENT 05 Indonesia GPE > 2.9 CARDINAL M developers 31% PERCENT 06 Japan GPE > 2.8 CARDINAL M developers 31% PERCENT 07 The Philippines GPE > 1.3 CARDINAL M developers 31% PERCENT 08 Thailand GPE > 857 CARDINAL K developers 25% PERCENT 09 South Korea GPE > 1.9 CARDINAL M developers 22% PERCENT 10 Australia GPE > 1.4 CARDINAL M developers 21% PERCENT

Table 1 CARDINAL : Developer growth by total developers in 2023 DATE , % increase from 2022 DATE .

India GPE ’s developer community continues to see massive year-over-year DATE growth. In last year’s DATE

Octoverse PERSON , we predicted that India GPE would overtake the United States GPE in total developer population. That’s still on track to happen. India GPE saw a 36% PERCENT year-over-year increase in its developer population with 3.5 million CARDINAL new developers joining GitHub in 2023 DATE .

As a part of the UN ORG -backed Digital Public Goods Alliance ORG , India GPE ’s been building its digital public infrastructure with open materials—ranging from software code to AI ORG models—to improve digital payments and ecommerce systems. Here’s a list of open source software ( OSS ORG ) projects that Indian NORP developers have built and are contributing to on GitHub.

Singapore GPE saw the most growth in developer population this year DATE in APAC ORG , and ranks first ORDINAL globally with the highest ratio of developers to overall population. The National University of Singapore’s ORG

School of Computing ORG incorporates GitHub into its curriculum, and high growth may also be attributable to the country’s regulatory significance in Southeast Asia LOC .

We’re also likely to see continued developer growth in Japan GPE over the next year DATE as a result of its investments in technology and startups.

Fastest ORG growing developer communities in Africa LOC

With the fastest growing population in the world and an increasing pool of developers, African NORP regions have been identified as promising hubs for technology companies. (For example, in Kenya GPE , programming is mandatory to teach in primary and secondary school.)

# CARDINAL of developers YoY CARDINAL growth 01 Nigeria GPE > 868 CARDINAL K developers 45% PERCENT 02 Ghana GPE > 152 CARDINAL K developers 41% PERCENT 03 Kenya GPE > 296 CARDINAL K developers 41% PERCENT 04 Morocco GPE > 446 CARDINAL K developers 35% PERCENT 05 Ethiopia GPE > 94 CARDINAL K developers 32% PERCENT 06 South Africa GPE > 539 CARDINAL K developers 30% PERCENT

Table 2 CARDINAL : Developer growth by total developers in 2023 DATE , % increase from 2022 DATE .

Nigeria GPE is a hot spot for OSS ORG adoption and technological investments, and its 45% PERCENT year-over-year growth rate—which is the largest worldwide increase—reflects this. There’s also a collection of at least 200 CARDINAL projects on GitHub made by Nigerian NORP developers, which can be found under the “Made in Africa LOC ” collection.

Fastest ORG growing developer communities in South America

LOC Developer growth rates in South America LOC are on par with some of the fastest-growing developer communities in Asia Pacific LOC and Africa LOC .

# CARDINAL of developers YoY CARDINAL growth 01 Argentina GPE > 925 CARDINAL K developers 33% PERCENT 02 Bolivia GPE > 105 CARDINAL K developers 33% PERCENT 03 Colombia GPE > 872 CARDINAL K developers 31% PERCENT 04 Brazil GPE > 4.3 CARDINAL M developers 30% PERCENT 05 Chile GPE > 437 CARDINAL K developers 26% PERCENT

Table 3 CARDINAL : Developer growth by total developers in 2023 DATE , % increase from 2022 DATE .

In 2023 DATE , Brazil GPE ’s developer population was the largest in this region and continues to grow by double-digits with a 30% PERCENT year-over-year increase. This follows continued investment by private and public organizations in Brazil GPE . Check out the list of OSS ORG projects that Brazilian NORP developers made and are contributing to on GitHub.

We’re also seeing continued growth in Argentina GPE and Colombia GPE , which have emerged over the last few years DATE as popular investment targets for organizations.

Open banking systems have helped to accelerate global growth—and developer activity. Such systems have enabled Indian NORP citizens who are in their country’s welfare system to receive direct benefit transfers to their bank accounts, and helped to disburse emergency funds during the pandemic.

Mercado Libre PERSON serves as Latin America LOC ’s largest e-commerce and digital payments ecosystem. By using GitHub to automate deployment, security tests, and repetitive tasks, its developers stay focused on their mission to democratize commerce.

Meanwhile, 70% PERCENT of Brazil GPE ’s adult population and 60% PERCENT of its businesses have used Pix, the country’s real-time payments infrastructure. The Central Bank of Brazil ORG recently open sourced Pix’s communication protocols. The bottom line: developers want to build great software and rank designing solutions to novel problems among the top things that positively impact their workdays. When investments are made to optimize the developer experience, developers can drive real-world impact that they’re proud of.

Fastest ORG growing developer communities in Europe LOC

Communities throughout Europe LOC continue to see increases in their overall developer populations, but their development now more closely mirrors the United States GPE in aggregate as communities in South America LOC , Africa LOC , and the Asia Pacific LOC outpace them in growth.

# CARDINAL of developers YoY CARDINAL growth 01 Spain GPE > 1.5 CARDINAL M developers 25% PERCENT 02 Portugal GPE > 410 CARDINAL K developers 24% PERCENT 03 Poland GPE > 1.2 CARDINAL M developers 24% PERCENT 04 Germany GPE > 2.9 CARDINAL M developers 22% PERCENT 05 Italy GPE > 1.1 CARDINAL M developers 22% PERCENT 06 France GPE > 2.3 CARDINAL M developers 22% PERCENT 07 United Kingdom GPE > 3.4 CARDINAL M developers 21% PERCENT

Table 4 CARDINAL : Developer growth by total developers in 2023 DATE , % increase from 2022 DATE .

Notably, the growth in France GPE follows its government push to attract more tech startups. We’re also seeing an uptick in growth in Spain GPE and Italy GPE , which speaks to efforts in these two CARDINAL regions to bolster their domestic technology markets.

The explosive growth of generative AI in 2023 DATE

While generative AI made a splash in news headlines in 2023 DATE , it’s not entirely new to developers on GitHub. In fact, we’ve seen several generative AI projects emerge on GitHub over the past several years DATE —and plenty of other AI-focused projects, too.

But GitHub data in 2023 DATE reflects how these AI projects have progressed from more specialist-oriented work and research to more mainstream adoption with developers increasingly using pre-trained models and APIs to build generative AI-powered applications.

Just halfway through this past year DATE , we saw more than twice the number of generative AI projects in 2023 DATE as in all of 2022 DATE . And we know this is just the tip of the iceberg.

As more developers experiment with these new technologies, we expect them to drive AI innovation in software development and continue to bring the technology’s fast-evolving capabilities into the mainstream.

Developers are increasingly experimenting with AI models. Where in years DATE past we saw developers building projects with machine learning libraries like tensorflow/tensorflow, pytorch/pytorch, we now see far more developers experimenting with AI ORG models and LLMs such as the ChatGPT API.

Stay smart: we anticipate businesses and organizations to also leverage pre-trained AI ORG models—especially as more and more developers become familiar with building with them.

Open source AI innovation is diverse and the top AI projects are owned by individual developers. Analyzing the top 20 CARDINAL open source generative AI projects on GitHub, some of the top projects are owned by individuals. That suggests that open source projects on GitHub continue to drive innovation and show us all what’s next in the industry, with the community building around the most exciting advancements.

Generative AI is driving a significant and global spike in individual contributors to generative AI projects with 148% PERCENT

year-over-year DATE growth—and a 248% PERCENT

year-over-year DATE increase in the total number of generative AI projects, too. Notably, the United States GPE , India GPE , and Japan GPE are leading the way among developer communities with other regions, including Hong Kong GPE (SAR), the United Kingdom GPE , and Brazil GPE following.

💡 The massive uptick in the number of developers learning about generative AI will impact businesses. As more and more developers gain familiarity with building generative AI-powered applications, we expect a growing talent pool to bolster businesses that seek to develop their own AI-powered products and services.

What will the impact of generative AI be on developers? Earlier this year DATE , we partnered with Harvard Business School ORG and Keystone.AI to conduct some research around the economic and productivity impacts that AI ORG will have on the developer landscape. One CARDINAL of the more striking key findings we uncovered is that the productivity gains that developers stand to benefit from generative AI ORG could contribute an estimated $1.5 trillion USD MONEY to the global economy, as well as an additional 15 million “effective developers” to worldwide capacity by 2030 CARDINAL .

Learn more >

The bottom line: over the past year DATE , we have seen an exponential growth in applications being built on top of foundation models, like ChatGPT, as developers use these LLMs to develop user-facing tools, such as APIs, bots, assistants, mobile applications, and plugins. Developers globally are helping to lay the groundwork for mainstream adoption, and experimentation is helping to build a talent pool for organizations.

The most popular programming languages

Since we saw a massive growth in cloud-native development in 2019 DATE , IaC PERSON has continued to grow in open source. In 2023 DATE , Shell ORG and Hashicorp Configuration Language ORG (HCL) once again emerged as top languages across open source projects, indicating that operations and IaC ORG work are gaining prominence in the open source space.

HCL adoption registered 36% PERCENT year-over-year growth, which shows that developers are making use of infrastructure for their applications.

The increase in HCL ORG suggests developers are increasingly using declarative languages to dictate how they’re leveraging cloud deployments.

JavaScript has once again taken the crown for the #1 most popular language, and we continue to see familiar languages, such as Python ORG and Java PERSON , remain in the top five languages year over year DATE .

TypeScript ORG rises in popularity. This year DATE , TypeScript ORG overtook Java PERSON for the first ORDINAL time as the third ORDINAL most popular language across OSS ORG projects on GitHub ORG with 37% PERCENT growth of its user base. A language, type checker, compiler, and language service all in one CARDINAL , TypeScript ORG was launched in 2012 DATE and marked the dawn of gradual types, which allow developers to adopt varying levels of static and dynamic typing in their code. Learn more about Typescript >

There has been a notable increase in popular languages and frameworks for data analytics and operations. Venerable languages, such as T-SQL PRODUCT and TeX ORG , grew in 2023 DATE , which highlights how data scientists, mathematicians, and analysts are increasingly engaging with open source platforms and tooling.

The bottom line: Programming languages aren’t just confined to the realm of traditional software development anymore.

We see remarkable parity with the most popular languages used in projects created in 2023 DATE when compared to the overall most popular languages used across GitHub. Some notable outliers include Kotlin ORG , Rust, Go, and Lua, which have seen larger growth across newer projects on GitHub.

Rust continues to rise Amid comments from industry leaders about how systems programming should be conducted in Rust ORG and its inclusion in the Linux PRODUCT kernel, Rust continues to attract more and more developers.

While its overall usage is comparatively low to other languages, it is growing at 40% PERCENT year over year and was named by the 2023 DATE Stack Overflow developer survey as the most admired language for the eighth year in a row DATE . Learn why Rust is so admired >

Both Rust and Lua are notable for their memory safety and efficiency—and both can be used for systems and embedded systems programming, which can be attributed to their growth. And the recent growth of Go is driven by cloud-native projects, such as Kubernetes ORG and Prometheus PERSON .

Defining a language vs. a framework A programming language is a formal means of defining the syntax and semantics for writing code, and it serves as the foundation for development by specifying the logic and behavior of applications. A framework is a pre-built set of tools, libraries, and conventions designed to streamline and structure the development process for specific types of applications.

Developer activity as a bellwether of new tech adoption

In early 2023 DATE , we celebrated a milestone of more than 100 million QUANTITY developers using GitHub—and since last year DATE we’ve seen a nearly 26% PERCENT increase in all global developer accounts on GitHub. More developers than ever collaborate across time zones and build software. Developer activity, in both private and public repositories, underscores what technologies are being broadly adopted—and what technologies are poised for wider adoption.

Developers are automating more of their workflows. Over the past year DATE , developers used 169% PERCENT more GitHub Actions minutes to automate tasks in public projects, develop CI/CD pipelines, and more.

On average, developers used more than 20 million GitHub MONEY Actions minutes a day in public projects . And the community keeps growing with the number of GitHub Actions ORG in the GitHub Marketplace passing the 20,000 CARDINAL mark in 2023 DATE .

. And the community keeps growing with the number of GitHub Actions ORG in the GitHub Marketplace passing the 20,000 CARDINAL mark in 2023 DATE . This underscores growing awareness across open source communities around automation for CI/CD and community management.

More than 80% PERCENT of GitHub contributions are made to private repositories. That’s more than 4.2 billion MONEY contributions to private projects and more than 310 million CARDINAL to public and open source projects. These numbers show the sheer scale of activity happening across public, open source, and private repositories through free, Team ORG , and GitHub Enterprise ORG accounts. The abundance of private activity suggests the value of innersource ORG and how Git-based collaboration doesn’t benefit the quality of just open source but also proprietary code.

In fact, all developers in a recent GitHub-sponsored survey said their companies have adopted some innersource ORG practices at minimum, and over half CARDINAL said there’s an active innersource culture in their organization.

GitHub is where developers are operating and scaling cloud-native applications. In 2023 DATE , 4.3 million CARDINAL public and private repositories used Dockerfiles PRODUCT —and more than 1 million CARDINAL public repositories used Dockerfiles PRODUCT for creating containers. This follows the increased use we’ve seen in Terraform ORG and other cloud-native technologies over the past few years DATE . The increased adoption of IaC PERSON practices also suggests developers are bringing more standardization to cloud deployments.

Generative AI makes its way into GitHub Actions ORG . The early adoption and collaborative power of AI among the developer community is apparent in the 300 CARDINAL + AI-powered GitHub Actions and 30 CARDINAL + GPT-powered GitHub Actions in the GitHub Marketplace ORG . Developers not only continue to experiment with AI ORG , but are also bringing it to more parts of the developer experience and their workflows through the GitHub Marketplace ORG .

How will AI change the developer experience? 92% PERCENT of developers are already using AI coding tools both in and outside of work. That’s one of our key findings in a 2023 DATE developer survey GitHub ORG sponsored. Moreover, 81% PERCENT of developers believe that AI coding tools will make their teams more collaborative.

Developers in our survey indicate that collaboration, satisfaction, and productivity are all positioned to get a boost from AI coding tools. Learn more about AI ORG ’s impact on the developer experience >

The bottom line: developers experiment with new technologies and share their learnings across public and private repositories. This interdependent work has surfaced the value of containerization, automation, and CI/CD to package and ship code across open source communities and companies alike.

The state of security in open source

This year DATE , we’re seeing developers, OSS ORG communities, and companies alike respond faster to security events with automated alerts, tooling, and proactive security measures—which is helping developers get better security outcomes, faster. We’re also seeing responsible AI tooling and research being shared on GitHub.

More developers are using automation to secure dependencies. In 2023 DATE , open source developers merged 60% PERCENT more automated Dependabot PERSON pull requests for vulnerable packages than in 2022 DATE —which underscores the shared community’s dedication to open source and security. Developers across open source communities are fixing more vulnerable packages and addressing more vulnerabilities in their code thanks to free tools on GitHub, such as Dependabot PERSON , code scanning, and secret scanning.

We calculate the top 1,000 CARDINAL public projects by a rubric called Mona Rank PERSON , which evaluates the number of stars, forks, and unique Issue authors. We take all public, non-forked repositories with a license and calculate ranks for each of the above three CARDINAL metrics and then use the sum to show the top Mona PERSON Ranked projects.

More open source maintainers are protecting their branches. Protected branches give maintainers more ways to ensure the security of their projects and we’ve seen more than 60% PERCENT of the most popular open source projects using them. Managing these rules at scale should get even easier since we launched repository rules on GitHub ORG in GA GPE

earlier this year DATE .

Developers are sharing responsible AI tooling on GitHub. In the age of experimental generative AI, we’re seeing a development trend in AI trust and safety tooling. Developers are creating and sharing tools around responsible AI, fairness in AI ORG , responsible machine learning, and ethical AI.

The Center for Security and Emerging Technology ORG at Georgetown University ORG is also identifying which countries and institutions are the top producers of trustworthy AI research and sharing its research code on GitHub.

AI redefines “shift left” AI will usher in a new era for writing secure code, according to Mike Hanley PERSON , GitHub ORG ’s Chief Security Officer and Senior Vice President of Engineering. Traditionally, “shift left” meant getting security feedback as early as possible and catching vulnerable code before it reached production. This definition is set to be radically transformed with the introduction of AI ORG , which is fundamentally changing how we can prevent vulnerabilities from ever being written in code. Tools, like GitHub Copilot and GitHub Advanced Security ORG , bring security directly to developers as they’re introducing their ideas to code in real time.

Read more about AI ORG ’s potential in security >

The bottom line: to help OSS ORG communities and projects stay more secure, we’ve invested in making Dependabot PERSON , protected branches, CodeQL NORP , and secret scanning available for free to public projects. New adoption metrics in 2023 DATE show how these investments are succeeding in helping more open source projects improve their overall security. We’re also seeing interest in creating and sharing responsible AI tools among software developers and institutional researchers.

The state of open source

In 2023 DATE , developers made 301 million CARDINAL total contributions to open source projects across GitHub that ranged from popular projects like Mastodon ORG to generative AI projects like Stable Diffusion, and LangChain PRODUCT .

Commercially backed projects continued to attract some of the most open source contributions—but 2023 DATE was the first year DATE that generative AI projects also entered the top 10 CARDINAL most popular projects across GitHub. Speaking of generative AI, almost a third CARDINAL of open source projects with at least one CARDINAL star have a maintainer who is using GitHub Copilot.

Commercially backed projects continue to lead. In 2023 DATE , the largest projects by the total number of contributors were overwhelmingly commercially backed. This is a continued trend from last year DATE , with microsoft ORG /vscode, flutter/flutter, and vercel/next.js making our top 10 CARDINAL list again in 2023 DATE .

Generative AI grows fast in open source and public projects. In 2023 DATE , we saw generative AI-based OSS ORG projects, like langchain-ai/langchain and AUTOMATIC1111/stable-diffusion-webui, rise to the top projects by contributor count on GitHub. More developers are building LLM ORG applications with pre-trained AI ORG models and customizing AI ORG apps to user needs.

Open source maintainers are adopting generative AI. Almost a third CARDINAL of open source projects with at least one CARDINAL star have a maintainer who is using GitHub Copilot. This follows our program to offer GitHub Copilot for free to open source maintainers and shows the growing adoption of generative AI in open source.

Did you know that nearly 30% PERCENT of Fortune 100 companies have Open Source Program Offices ORG (OSPOs)? OSPOs encourage an organization’s participation in and compliance with open source. According to the Linux Foundation ORG , OSPO ORG adoption across global companies increased by 32% PERCENT since 2022 DATE , and 72% PERCENT of companies are planning to implement an OSPO ORG or OSS ORG initiative within the next 12 months DATE .

Companies, such as Microsoft ORG , Google ORG , Meta ORG , Comcast ORG , JPMorgan Chase ORG , and Mercedes Benz ORG , for example, have OSPOs. We founded GitHub ORG ’s OSPO ORG in 2021 DATE and open sourced github-ospo to share our resources and insights. (By our count, GitHub depends on over 50K open source components to build GitHub.) Learn more about OSPOs >

Developers see benefits to combining packages and containerization. As we noted earlier, 4.3 million CARDINAL repositories used Docker ORG in 2023 DATE . On the other side of the coin, Linux PRODUCT distribution NixOS/nixpkgs has been on the top list of open source projects by contributor for the last two years DATE .

First ORDINAL -time contributors continue to favor commercially backed projects. Last year DATE , we found that the power of brand recognition around popular, commercially backed projects drew more first ORDINAL -time contributors than other projects. This continued in 2023 DATE with some of the most popular open source projects among first ORDINAL -time contributors backed by Microsoft ORG , Google ORG , Meta ORG , and Vercel PERSON .

But community-driven open source projects ranging from home-assistant/core to AUTOMATIC1111/stable-diffusion-webui, langchain-ai/langchain, and Significant-Gravitas/Auto-GPT also saw a surge in activity from first ORDINAL -time contributors. This suggests that open experimentation with foundation models increases the accessibility of generative AI, opening the door to new innovations and more collaboration.

2023 DATE saw the largest number of first ORDINAL time contributors contributing to open source projects. New developers became involved with the open source community through programs like freeCodeCamp, First Contributions ORG , and GitHub Education. We also saw a large number of developers taking part in online, open sourced education projects from the likes of Google ORG and IBM ORG .

Other trends to watch 🔭 Open source projects focused on front-end development continue to grow. The continued growth of vercel/next.js and nuxt/nuxt (which came within the top 40 CARDINAL projects by contributor growth), we’re seeing more developers in open source and public projects engage with front-end development work.

The continued growth of vercel/next.js and nuxt/nuxt (which came within the top 40 CARDINAL projects by contributor growth), we’re seeing more developers in open source and public projects engage with front-end development work. The open source home automation project home-assistant/core hits the top contributors list again. The project’s been on the top list nearly every year since DATE

2018 DATE (with the exception of 2021 DATE ). Its continued popularity shows the strength of the project’s community building efforts.

The bottom line: developers are contributing to open source generative AI projects, open source maintainers are adopting generative AI coding tools, and companies continue to rely on open source software. These are all indications that developers who learn in the open and share their experiments with new technologies lift an entire global network of developers—whether they’re working in public or private repositories.

Take this with you

Just as Git has become foundational to today DATE ’s developer experience, we’re now seeing evidence of the mainstream emergence of AI ORG . In the past year alone DATE , a staggering 92% PERCENT of developers have reported using AI ORG -based coding tools, both inside and outside of work. This past year DATE has also seen an explosive surge in AI experimentation across various open source projects hosted on GitHub.

We leave you with three CARDINAL takeaways:

GitHub is the developer platform for generative AI. Generative AI evolved from a specialist field into mainstream technology in 2023 DATE —and an explosion of activity in open source reflects that. As more developers build and experiment with generative AI, they’re using GitHub to collaborate and collectively learn. Developers are operating cloud-native applications at scale on GitHub. In 2019 DATE , we started to see a big jump in the number of developers using container-based technologies in open source—and the rate at which developers are increasingly using Git-based IaC ORG workflows, container orchestration, and other cloud-native technologies sharply increased in 2023 DATE . This enormous amount of activity shows that developers are using GitHub to standardize how they deploy software to the cloud. GitHub is where open source communities, developers, and companies are building software. In 2023 DATE , we saw a 38% PERCENT increase in the number of private repositories—which account for more than 81% PERCENT of all activity on GitHub. But we are seeing continued growth in the open source communities who are using GitHub to build what’s next and push the industry forward. With the data showing the increase in new open source developers and the rapid pace of innovation that is possible in open communities, it’s clear that open source has never been stronger.

Methodology

This report draws on anonymized user and product data taken from GitHub from October 1, 2022 through September 30, 2023 DATE . We define AI projects on GitHub by 683 CARDINAL repository topic terms, which you can learn more about in research we conducted in 2023 DATE (page 25 CARDINAL to be exact). We also evaluate open source projects by a metric we call “ Mona Rank PERSON ,” which is a rank-based analysis of the community size and popularity of projects.

More data is publicly available on the GitHub Innovation Graph ORG —a research tool GitHub offers for organizations and individuals curious about the state of software development across GitHub.

For a complete methodology, please contact [email protected].

Glossary

2023 DATE : a year in this report is the last 365 days DATE from the last Octoverse PERSON release and ranges from 10/1/2022 CARDINAL to 9/30/2023 CARDINAL .

a year in this report is the last 365 days DATE from the last Octoverse PERSON release and ranges from 10/1/2022 CARDINAL to 9/30/2023 CARDINAL . Developers: developers are individual, not-spammy user accounts on GitHub.

developers are individual, not-spammy user accounts on GitHub ORG . Public projects: any project on GitHub that is publicly available for others to contribute to, fork, clone, or engage with.

any project on GitHub that is publicly available for others to contribute to, fork, clone, or engage with. Open Source Projects and Communities: open source projects are public repositories with an open source license.

open source projects are public repositories with an open source license. Location: geographic information is based on the last known network location of individual users and organization profiles. We only study anonymized and aggregated location data, and never look at location data beyond the geographic region and country.

geographic information is based on the last known network location of individual users and organization profiles. We only study anonymized and aggregated location data, and never look at location data beyond the geographic region and country. Organizations: organization accounts represent groups of people on GitHub that can be paid or free and big or small.

organization accounts represent groups of people on GitHub that can be paid or free and big or small. Projects and Repositories: we use repositories and projects interchangeably, but recognize that larger projects can sometimes span multiple repositories.

Notes

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