Octoverse: The state of open source and rise of AI in 2023

By admin
What does it mean for a new technology to go mainstream?


First
ORDINAL

released in

2005
DATE

,

Git
PERSON

was still a new open source version control system when we founded GitHub.

Today
DATE

, Git is a foundational element of the modern developer experience—93% of developers use it to build and deploy software everywhere.

In

2023
DATE

, GitHub data highlighted how another technology has quickly begun to reshape the developer experience: AI.

This past year
DATE

, more and more developers started working with AI, while also experimenting with building AI-powered applications. Git has fundamentally changed

today
DATE

’s developer experience, and now

AI
ORG

is setting the stage for what’s next in software development.

At

GitHub
ORG

, we know developers love to learn by doing and open source helps developers more rapidly adopt new technologies, integrate them into their workflows, and build what’s next. Open source also powers nearly every piece of modern software—including much of the digital economy. As we explore how technologies become mainstream, GitHub continues to play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between experimentation and the widespread adoption of open source technologies, which underpin the foundations of our software ecosystem.

In

this year
DATE

’s report, we’ll study how open source activity around AI, the cloud, and Git has changed the developer experience and is increasingly driving impact among developers and organizations alike.

We uncover

three
CARDINAL

big trends:

Developers are building with generative AI in big numbers. We’re seeing more developers experiment with foundation models from OpenAI and other AI players, with open source generative AI projects even entering the top

10
CARDINAL

most popular open source projects by contributor count in

2023
DATE

. With almost all developers (

92%
PERCENT

) using or experimenting with AI coding tools, we expect open source developers to drive the next wave of AI innovation on GitHub.

We’re seeing more developers experiment with foundation models from OpenAI and other AI players, with open source generative AI projects even entering the top

10
CARDINAL

most popular open source projects by contributor count in

2023
DATE

. With almost all developers (

92%
PERCENT

) using or experimenting with AI coding tools, we expect open source developers to drive the next wave of AI innovation on GitHub. Developers are operating cloud-native applications at scale. We’re seeing an increase in declarative languages using Git-based infrastructure as code (

IaC
ORG

) workflows, greater standardization in cloud deployments, and a sharp increase in the rate at which developers were using

Dockerfiles
PRODUCT

and containers,

IaC
PERSON

, and other cloud-native technologies.

We’re seeing an increase in declarative languages using Git-based infrastructure as code (

IaC
ORG

) workflows, greater standardization in cloud deployments, and a sharp increase in the rate at which developers were using

Dockerfiles
PRODUCT

and containers,

IaC
PERSON

, and other cloud-native technologies.

2023
DATE

saw the largest number of

first
ORDINAL

-time open source contributors. We continue to see commercially backed open source projects capture the largest share of

first
ORDINAL

-time contributors and overall contributions—but

this year
DATE

, we also saw generative AI projects enter the top

10
CARDINAL

most popular projects for

first
ORDINAL

-time contributors. We’re also seeing notable growth in private projects on

GitHub
ORG

, which increased

38%
PERCENT

year over year and account for

more than 80%
PERCENT

of all activity on GitHub.


Kyle Daigle
PERSON

Chief Operating Officer // GitHub

💡Oh, and if you’re a visual learner, we have you covered.👇

A global community of developers building on GitHub

Globally, developers are using GitHub to build software and collaborate in larger numbers than ever before—and that spans across public and private projects. This not only proves the foundational value of Git in

today
DATE

’s developer experience, but also shows the global community of developers using GitHub to build software.

With

20.2 million
CARDINAL

developers and a

21%
PERCENT

increase in developer growth over

the past year
DATE

, the

U.S.
GPE

continues to have the largest developer community globally. But since

2013
DATE

, we’ve continued to see other communities account for more growth across the platform which we expect to continue. This worldwide distribution of developers on GitHub shows which regions have the most developers.

Who do we consider to be a developer? We define “developer” as anyone with a GitHub account. Why?

The open source and developer communities are an increasingly diverse and global group of people who tinker with code, make non-code contributions, conduct scientific research, and more. GitHub users drive open source innovation, and they work across industries—from software development to data analysis and design.

Developer communities in

Asia Pacific
LOC

,

Africa
LOC

,

South America
LOC

, and

Europe
LOC

are getting bigger year over year—with

India
GPE

,

Brazil
GPE

, and

Japan
GPE

among those leading the pack.

Explore our data with

the GitHub Innovation Graph
ORG

To help researchers build their own insights from GitHub data, we have released

the GitHub Innovation Graph
ORG

. With

the GitHub Innovation Graph
ORG

, researchers, policymakers, and developers can now access valuable data and insights into global developer impact to assess the influence of open source on the global economy. Through a dedicated webpage and repository, it offers

quarterly
DATE

data that dates back to

2020
DATE

and includes Git pushes, developers, organizations, repositories, languages, licenses, topics, and economic collaborators.

Explore the GitHub Innovation Graph >

Projecting the top

10
CARDINAL

developer communities over

the next five years
DATE

To understand which developer communities are poised to grow the most over

the next five years
DATE

, we built projections based on current growth rates. Under this rubric, we anticipate that

India
GPE

will overtake

the United States
GPE

as the largest developer community on GitHub by

2027
DATE

.

These projections assume linear growth to forecast which developer communities will be the largest on GitHub by

2028
DATE

.


Fastest
ORG

growing developer communities in

Asia Pacific
LOC

We continue to see considerable growth in

the Asia Pacific
LOC

region driven by economic hubs in

India
GPE

,

Japan
GPE

, and

Singapore
GPE

.


#
CARDINAL

of developers

YoY
CARDINAL

growth 01

Singapore
GPE

>1M developers

39%
PERCENT

02

India
GPE

>

13.2
CARDINAL

M developers

36%
PERCENT

03

Hong Kong
GPE

(SAR) >

1.6
CARDINAL

M developers

35%
PERCENT

04

Vietnam
GPE

>

1.5
CARDINAL

M developers

34%
PERCENT

05

Indonesia
GPE

>

2.9
CARDINAL

M developers

31%
PERCENT

06

Japan
GPE

>

2.8
CARDINAL

M developers

31%
PERCENT

07 The

Philippines
GPE

>

1.3
CARDINAL

M developers

31%
PERCENT

08

Thailand
GPE

>

857
CARDINAL

K developers

25%
PERCENT

09

South Korea
GPE

>

1.9
CARDINAL

M developers

22%
PERCENT

10

Australia
GPE

>

1.4
CARDINAL

M developers

21%
PERCENT

Table

1
CARDINAL

: Developer growth by total developers in

2023
DATE

, % increase from

2022
DATE

.


India
GPE

’s developer community continues to see massive

year-over-year
DATE

growth. In

last year’s
DATE


Octoverse
PERSON

, we predicted that

India
GPE

would overtake

the United States
GPE

in total developer population. That’s still on track to happen.

India
GPE

saw a

36%
PERCENT

year-over-year increase in its developer population with

3.5 million
CARDINAL

new developers joining GitHub in

2023
DATE

.

As a part of the

UN
ORG

-backed

Digital Public Goods Alliance
ORG

,

India
GPE

’s been building its digital public infrastructure with open materials—ranging from software code to

AI
ORG

models—to improve digital payments and ecommerce systems. Here’s a list of open source software (

OSS
ORG

) projects that

Indian
NORP

developers have built and are contributing to on GitHub.


Singapore
GPE

saw the most growth in developer population

this year
DATE

in

APAC
ORG

, and ranks

first
ORDINAL

globally with the highest ratio of developers to overall population.

The National University of Singapore’s
ORG


School of Computing
ORG

incorporates GitHub into its curriculum, and high growth may also be attributable to the country’s regulatory significance in

Southeast Asia
LOC

.

We’re also likely to see continued developer growth in

Japan
GPE

over

the next year
DATE

as a result of its investments in technology and startups.


Fastest
ORG

growing developer communities in

Africa
LOC

With the fastest growing population in the world and an increasing pool of developers,

African
NORP

regions have been identified as promising hubs for technology companies. (For example, in

Kenya
GPE

, programming is mandatory to teach in primary and secondary school.)


#
CARDINAL

of developers

YoY
CARDINAL

growth 01

Nigeria
GPE

>

868
CARDINAL

K developers

45%
PERCENT

02

Ghana
GPE

>

152
CARDINAL

K developers

41%
PERCENT

03

Kenya
GPE

>

296
CARDINAL

K developers

41%
PERCENT

04

Morocco
GPE

>

446
CARDINAL

K developers

35%
PERCENT

05

Ethiopia
GPE

>

94
CARDINAL

K developers

32%
PERCENT

06

South Africa
GPE

>

539
CARDINAL

K developers

30%
PERCENT

Table

2
CARDINAL

: Developer growth by total developers in

2023
DATE

, % increase from

2022
DATE

.


Nigeria
GPE

is a hot spot for

OSS
ORG

adoption and technological investments, and its

45%
PERCENT

year-over-year growth rate—which is the largest worldwide increase—reflects this. There’s also a collection of

at least 200
CARDINAL

projects on GitHub made by

Nigerian
NORP

developers, which can be found under the “Made in

Africa
LOC

” collection.


Fastest
ORG

growing developer communities in

South America

LOC

Developer growth rates in

South America
LOC

are on par with some of the fastest-growing developer communities in

Asia Pacific
LOC

and

Africa
LOC

.


#
CARDINAL

of developers

YoY
CARDINAL

growth 01

Argentina
GPE

>

925
CARDINAL

K developers

33%
PERCENT

02

Bolivia
GPE

>

105
CARDINAL

K developers

33%
PERCENT

03

Colombia
GPE

>

872
CARDINAL

K developers

31%
PERCENT

04

Brazil
GPE

>

4.3
CARDINAL

M developers

30%
PERCENT

05

Chile
GPE

>

437
CARDINAL

K developers

26%
PERCENT

Table

3
CARDINAL

: Developer growth by total developers in

2023
DATE

, % increase from

2022
DATE

.

In

2023
DATE

,

Brazil
GPE

’s developer population was the largest in this region and continues to grow by double-digits with a

30%
PERCENT

year-over-year increase. This follows continued investment by private and public organizations in

Brazil
GPE

. Check out the list of

OSS
ORG

projects that

Brazilian
NORP

developers made and are contributing to on GitHub.

We’re also seeing continued growth in

Argentina
GPE

and

Colombia
GPE

, which have emerged over

the last few years
DATE

as popular investment targets for organizations.

Open banking systems have helped to accelerate global growth—and developer activity. Such systems have enabled

Indian
NORP

citizens who are in their country’s welfare system to receive direct benefit transfers to their bank accounts, and helped to disburse emergency funds during the pandemic.


Mercado Libre
PERSON

serves as

Latin America
LOC

’s largest e-commerce and digital payments ecosystem. By using GitHub to automate deployment, security tests, and repetitive tasks, its developers stay focused on their mission to democratize commerce.

Meanwhile,

70%
PERCENT

of

Brazil
GPE

’s adult population and

60%
PERCENT

of its businesses have used Pix, the country’s real-time payments infrastructure.

The Central Bank of Brazil
ORG

recently open sourced Pix’s communication protocols. The bottom line: developers want to build great software and rank designing solutions to novel problems among the top things that positively impact their workdays. When investments are made to optimize the developer experience, developers can drive real-world impact that they’re proud of.


Fastest
ORG

growing developer communities in

Europe
LOC

Communities throughout

Europe
LOC

continue to see increases in their overall developer populations, but their development now more closely mirrors

the United States
GPE

in aggregate as communities in

South America
LOC

,

Africa
LOC

, and

the Asia Pacific
LOC

outpace them in growth.


#
CARDINAL

of developers

YoY
CARDINAL

growth 01

Spain
GPE

>

1.5
CARDINAL

M developers

25%
PERCENT

02

Portugal
GPE

>

410
CARDINAL

K developers

24%
PERCENT

03

Poland
GPE

>

1.2
CARDINAL

M developers

24%
PERCENT

04

Germany
GPE

>

2.9
CARDINAL

M developers

22%
PERCENT

05

Italy
GPE

>

1.1
CARDINAL

M developers

22%
PERCENT

06

France
GPE

>

2.3
CARDINAL

M developers

22%
PERCENT

07

United Kingdom
GPE

>

3.4
CARDINAL

M developers

21%
PERCENT

Table

4
CARDINAL

: Developer growth by total developers in

2023
DATE

, % increase from

2022
DATE

.

Notably, the growth in

France
GPE

follows its government push to attract more tech startups. We’re also seeing an uptick in growth in

Spain
GPE

and

Italy
GPE

, which speaks to efforts in these

two
CARDINAL

regions to bolster their domestic technology markets.

The explosive growth of generative AI in

2023
DATE

While generative AI made a splash in news headlines in

2023
DATE

, it’s not entirely new to developers on GitHub. In fact, we’ve seen several generative AI projects emerge on GitHub over

the past several years
DATE

—and plenty of other AI-focused projects, too.

But GitHub data in

2023
DATE

reflects how these AI projects have progressed from more specialist-oriented work and research to more mainstream adoption with developers increasingly using pre-trained models and APIs to build generative AI-powered applications.

Just halfway through

this past year
DATE

, we saw more than twice the number of generative AI projects in

2023
DATE

as in all of

2022
DATE

. And we know this is just the tip of the iceberg.

As more developers experiment with these new technologies, we expect them to drive AI innovation in software development and continue to bring the technology’s fast-evolving capabilities into the mainstream.

Developers are increasingly experimenting with AI models. Where in

years
DATE

past we saw developers building projects with machine learning libraries like tensorflow/tensorflow, pytorch/pytorch, we now see far more developers experimenting with

AI
ORG

models and LLMs such as the ChatGPT API.

Stay smart: we anticipate businesses and organizations to also leverage pre-trained

AI
ORG

models—especially as more and more developers become familiar with building with them.

Open source AI innovation is diverse and the top AI projects are owned by individual developers. Analyzing the top

20
CARDINAL

open source generative AI projects on GitHub, some of the top projects are owned by individuals. That suggests that open source projects on GitHub continue to drive innovation and show us all what’s next in the industry, with the community building around the most exciting advancements.

Generative AI is driving a significant and global spike in individual contributors to generative AI projects with

148%
PERCENT


year-over-year
DATE

growth—and a

248%
PERCENT


year-over-year
DATE

increase in the total number of generative AI projects, too. Notably,

the United States
GPE

,

India
GPE

, and

Japan
GPE

are leading the way among developer communities with other regions, including

Hong Kong
GPE

(SAR),

the United Kingdom
GPE

, and

Brazil
GPE

following.

💡 The massive uptick in the number of developers learning about generative AI will impact businesses. As more and more developers gain familiarity with building generative AI-powered applications, we expect a growing talent pool to bolster businesses that seek to develop their own AI-powered products and services.

What will the impact of generative AI be on developers?

Earlier this year
DATE

, we partnered with

Harvard Business School
ORG

and Keystone.AI to conduct some research around the economic and productivity impacts that

AI
ORG

will have on the developer landscape.

One
CARDINAL

of the more striking key findings we uncovered is that the productivity gains that developers stand to benefit from generative

AI
ORG

could contribute

an estimated $1.5 trillion USD
MONEY

to the global economy, as well as an additional 15 million “effective developers” to worldwide capacity by

2030
CARDINAL

.

Learn more >

The bottom line: over

the past year
DATE

, we have seen an exponential growth in applications being built on top of foundation models, like ChatGPT, as developers use these LLMs to develop user-facing tools, such as APIs, bots, assistants, mobile applications, and plugins. Developers globally are helping to lay the groundwork for mainstream adoption, and experimentation is helping to build a talent pool for organizations.

The most popular programming languages

Since we saw a massive growth in cloud-native development in

2019
DATE

,

IaC
PERSON

has continued to grow in open source. In

2023
DATE

,

Shell
ORG

and

Hashicorp Configuration Language
ORG

(HCL) once again emerged as top languages across open source projects, indicating that operations and

IaC
ORG

work are gaining prominence in the open source space.

HCL adoption registered

36%
PERCENT

year-over-year growth, which shows that developers are making use of infrastructure for their applications.

The increase in

HCL
ORG

suggests developers are increasingly using declarative languages to dictate how they’re leveraging cloud deployments.

JavaScript has once again taken the crown for the #1 most popular language, and we continue to see familiar languages, such as

Python
ORG

and

Java
PERSON

, remain in the top

five languages year over year
DATE

.


TypeScript
ORG

rises in popularity.

This year
DATE

,

TypeScript
ORG

overtook

Java
PERSON

for the

first
ORDINAL

time as the

third
ORDINAL

most popular language across

OSS
ORG

projects on

GitHub
ORG

with

37%
PERCENT

growth of its user base. A language, type checker, compiler, and language service all in

one
CARDINAL

,

TypeScript
ORG

was launched in

2012
DATE

and marked the dawn of gradual types, which allow developers to adopt varying levels of static and dynamic typing in their code. Learn more about Typescript >

There has been a notable increase in popular languages and frameworks for data analytics and operations. Venerable languages, such as

T-SQL
PRODUCT

and

TeX
ORG

, grew in

2023
DATE

, which highlights how data scientists, mathematicians, and analysts are increasingly engaging with open source platforms and tooling.

The bottom line: Programming languages aren’t just confined to the realm of traditional software development anymore.

We see remarkable parity with the most popular languages used in projects created in

2023
DATE

when compared to the overall most popular languages used across GitHub. Some notable outliers include

Kotlin
ORG

, Rust, Go, and Lua, which have seen larger growth across newer projects on GitHub.

Rust continues to rise Amid comments from industry leaders about how systems programming should be conducted in

Rust
ORG

and its inclusion in the

Linux
PRODUCT

kernel, Rust continues to attract more and more developers.

While its overall usage is comparatively low to other languages, it is growing at

40%
PERCENT

year over year and was named by the

2023
DATE

Stack Overflow developer survey as the most admired language for

the eighth year in a row
DATE

. Learn why Rust is so admired >

Both Rust and Lua are notable for their memory safety and efficiency—and both can be used for systems and embedded systems programming, which can be attributed to their growth. And the recent growth of Go is driven by cloud-native projects, such as

Kubernetes
ORG

and

Prometheus
PERSON

.

Defining a language vs. a framework A programming language is a formal means of defining the syntax and semantics for writing code, and it serves as the foundation for development by specifying the logic and behavior of applications. A framework is a pre-built set of tools, libraries, and conventions designed to streamline and structure the development process for specific types of applications.

Developer activity as a bellwether of new tech adoption

In

early 2023
DATE

, we celebrated a milestone of

more than 100 million
QUANTITY

developers using GitHub—and since

last year
DATE

we’ve seen a

nearly 26%
PERCENT

increase in all global developer accounts on GitHub. More developers than ever collaborate across time zones and build software. Developer activity, in both private and public repositories, underscores what technologies are being broadly adopted—and what technologies are poised for wider adoption.

Developers are automating more of their workflows. Over

the past year
DATE

, developers used

169%
PERCENT

more GitHub Actions minutes to automate tasks in public projects, develop CI/CD pipelines, and more.

On average, developers used

more than 20 million GitHub
MONEY

Actions minutes a day in public projects . And the community keeps growing with the number of

GitHub Actions
ORG

in the GitHub Marketplace passing the

20,000
CARDINAL

mark in

2023
DATE

.

. And the community keeps growing with the number of

GitHub Actions
ORG

in the GitHub Marketplace passing the

20,000
CARDINAL

mark in

2023
DATE

. This underscores growing awareness across open source communities around automation for CI/CD and community management.


More than 80%
PERCENT

of GitHub contributions are made to private repositories. That’s

more than 4.2 billion
MONEY

contributions to private projects and

more than 310 million
CARDINAL

to public and open source projects. These numbers show the sheer scale of activity happening across public, open source, and private repositories through free,

Team
ORG

, and

GitHub Enterprise
ORG

accounts. The abundance of private activity suggests the value of

innersource
ORG

and how Git-based collaboration doesn’t benefit the quality of just open source but also proprietary code.

In fact, all developers in a recent GitHub-sponsored survey said their companies have adopted some

innersource
ORG

practices at minimum, and

over half
CARDINAL

said there’s an active innersource culture in their organization.

GitHub is where developers are operating and scaling cloud-native applications. In

2023
DATE

,

4.3 million
CARDINAL

public and private repositories used

Dockerfiles
PRODUCT

—and

more than 1 million
CARDINAL

public repositories used

Dockerfiles
PRODUCT

for creating containers. This follows the increased use we’ve seen in

Terraform
ORG

and other cloud-native technologies over

the past few years
DATE

. The increased adoption of

IaC
PERSON

practices also suggests developers are bringing more standardization to cloud deployments.

Generative AI makes its way into

GitHub Actions
ORG

. The early adoption and collaborative power of AI among the developer community is apparent in the

300
CARDINAL

+ AI-powered GitHub Actions and

30
CARDINAL

+ GPT-powered GitHub Actions in

the GitHub Marketplace
ORG

. Developers not only continue to experiment with

AI
ORG

, but are also bringing it to more parts of the developer experience and their workflows through

the GitHub Marketplace
ORG

.

How will AI change the developer experience?

92%
PERCENT

of developers are already using AI coding tools both in and outside of work. That’s one of our key findings in a

2023
DATE

developer survey

GitHub
ORG

sponsored. Moreover,

81%
PERCENT

of developers believe that AI coding tools will make their teams more collaborative.

Developers in our survey indicate that collaboration, satisfaction, and productivity are all positioned to get a boost from AI coding tools. Learn more about

AI
ORG

’s impact on the developer experience >

The bottom line: developers experiment with new technologies and share their learnings across public and private repositories. This interdependent work has surfaced the value of containerization, automation, and CI/CD to package and ship code across open source communities and companies alike.

The state of security in open source


This year
DATE

, we’re seeing developers,

OSS
ORG

communities, and companies alike respond faster to security events with automated alerts, tooling, and proactive security measures—which is helping developers get better security outcomes, faster. We’re also seeing responsible AI tooling and research being shared on GitHub.

More developers are using automation to secure dependencies. In

2023
DATE

, open source developers merged

60%
PERCENT

more automated

Dependabot
PERSON

pull requests for vulnerable packages than in

2022
DATE

—which underscores the shared community’s dedication to open source and security. Developers across open source communities are fixing more vulnerable packages and addressing more vulnerabilities in their code thanks to free tools on GitHub, such as

Dependabot
PERSON

, code scanning, and secret scanning.

We calculate the top

1,000
CARDINAL

public projects by a rubric called

Mona Rank
PERSON

, which evaluates the number of stars, forks, and unique Issue authors. We take all public, non-forked repositories with a license and calculate ranks for each of the above

three
CARDINAL

metrics and then use the sum to show the top

Mona
PERSON

Ranked projects.

More open source maintainers are protecting their branches. Protected branches give maintainers more ways to ensure the security of their projects and we’ve seen

more than 60%
PERCENT

of the most popular open source projects using them. Managing these rules at scale should get even easier since we launched repository rules on

GitHub
ORG

in

GA
GPE


earlier this year
DATE

.

Developers are sharing responsible AI tooling on GitHub. In the age of experimental generative AI, we’re seeing a development trend in AI trust and safety tooling. Developers are creating and sharing tools around responsible AI, fairness in

AI
ORG

, responsible machine learning, and ethical AI.


The Center for Security and Emerging Technology
ORG

at

Georgetown University
ORG

is also identifying which countries and institutions are the top producers of trustworthy AI research and sharing its research code on GitHub.

AI redefines “shift left” AI will usher in a new era for writing secure code, according to

Mike Hanley
PERSON

,

GitHub
ORG

’s Chief Security Officer and Senior Vice President of Engineering. Traditionally, “shift left” meant getting security feedback as early as possible and catching vulnerable code before it reached production. This definition is set to be radically transformed with the introduction of

AI
ORG

, which is fundamentally changing how we can prevent vulnerabilities from ever being written in code. Tools, like GitHub Copilot and

GitHub Advanced Security
ORG

, bring security directly to developers as they’re introducing their ideas to code in real time.

Read more about

AI
ORG

’s potential in security >

The bottom line: to help

OSS
ORG

communities and projects stay more secure, we’ve invested in making

Dependabot
PERSON

, protected branches,

CodeQL
NORP

, and secret scanning available for free to public projects. New adoption metrics in

2023
DATE

show how these investments are succeeding in helping more open source projects improve their overall security. We’re also seeing interest in creating and sharing responsible AI tools among software developers and institutional researchers.

The state of open source

In

2023
DATE

, developers made

301 million
CARDINAL

total contributions to open source projects across GitHub that ranged from popular projects like

Mastodon
ORG

to generative AI projects like Stable Diffusion, and

LangChain
PRODUCT

.

Commercially backed projects continued to attract some of the most open source contributions—but

2023
DATE

was

the first year
DATE

that generative AI projects also entered the top

10
CARDINAL

most popular projects across GitHub. Speaking of generative AI,

almost a third
CARDINAL

of open source projects with

at least one
CARDINAL

star have a maintainer who is using GitHub Copilot.

Commercially backed projects continue to lead. In

2023
DATE

, the largest projects by the total number of contributors were overwhelmingly commercially backed. This is a continued trend from

last year
DATE

, with

microsoft
ORG

/vscode, flutter/flutter, and vercel/next.js making our top

10
CARDINAL

list again in

2023
DATE

.

Generative AI grows fast in open source and public projects. In

2023
DATE

, we saw generative AI-based

OSS
ORG

projects, like langchain-ai/langchain and AUTOMATIC1111/stable-diffusion-webui, rise to the top projects by contributor count on GitHub. More developers are building

LLM
ORG

applications with pre-trained

AI
ORG

models and customizing

AI
ORG

apps to user needs.

Open source maintainers are adopting generative AI.

Almost a third
CARDINAL

of open source projects with

at least one
CARDINAL

star have a maintainer who is using GitHub Copilot. This follows our program to offer GitHub Copilot for free to open source maintainers and shows the growing adoption of generative AI in open source.

Did you know that

nearly 30%
PERCENT

of Fortune 100 companies have

Open Source Program Offices
ORG

(OSPOs)? OSPOs encourage an organization’s participation in and compliance with open source. According to

the Linux Foundation
ORG

,

OSPO
ORG

adoption across global companies increased by

32%
PERCENT

since

2022
DATE

, and

72%
PERCENT

of companies are planning to implement an

OSPO
ORG

or

OSS
ORG

initiative within

the next 12 months
DATE

.

Companies, such as

Microsoft
ORG

,

Google
ORG

,

Meta
ORG

,

Comcast
ORG

,

JPMorgan Chase
ORG

, and

Mercedes Benz
ORG

, for example, have OSPOs. We founded

GitHub
ORG

’s

OSPO
ORG

in

2021
DATE

and open sourced github-ospo to share our resources and insights. (By our count, GitHub depends on over 50K open source components to build GitHub.) Learn more about OSPOs >

Developers see benefits to combining packages and containerization. As we noted earlier,

4.3 million
CARDINAL

repositories used

Docker
ORG

in

2023
DATE

. On the other side of the coin,

Linux
PRODUCT

distribution NixOS/nixpkgs has been on the top list of open source projects by contributor for

the last two years
DATE

.


First
ORDINAL

-time contributors continue to favor commercially backed projects.

Last year
DATE

, we found that the power of brand recognition around popular, commercially backed projects drew more

first
ORDINAL

-time contributors than other projects. This continued in

2023
DATE

with some of the most popular open source projects among

first
ORDINAL

-time contributors backed by

Microsoft
ORG

,

Google
ORG

,

Meta
ORG

, and

Vercel
PERSON

.

But community-driven open source projects ranging from home-assistant/core to AUTOMATIC1111/stable-diffusion-webui, langchain-ai/langchain, and Significant-Gravitas/Auto-GPT also saw a surge in activity from

first
ORDINAL

-time contributors. This suggests that open experimentation with foundation models increases the accessibility of generative AI, opening the door to new innovations and more collaboration.


2023
DATE

saw the largest number of

first
ORDINAL

time contributors contributing to open source projects. New developers became involved with the open source community through programs like freeCodeCamp,

First Contributions
ORG

, and GitHub Education. We also saw a large number of developers taking part in online, open sourced education projects from the likes of

Google
ORG

and

IBM
ORG

.

Other trends to watch 🔭 Open source projects focused on front-end development continue to grow. The continued growth of vercel/next.js and nuxt/nuxt (which came within the top

40
CARDINAL

projects by contributor growth), we’re seeing more developers in open source and public projects engage with front-end development work.

The continued growth of vercel/next.js and nuxt/nuxt (which came within the top

40
CARDINAL

projects by contributor growth), we’re seeing more developers in open source and public projects engage with front-end development work. The open source home automation project home-assistant/core hits the top contributors list again. The project’s been on the top list

nearly every year since
DATE


2018
DATE

(with the exception of

2021
DATE

). Its continued popularity shows the strength of the project’s community building efforts.

The bottom line: developers are contributing to open source generative AI projects, open source maintainers are adopting generative AI coding tools, and companies continue to rely on open source software. These are all indications that developers who learn in the open and share their experiments with new technologies lift an entire global network of developers—whether they’re working in public or private repositories.

Take this with you

Just as Git has become foundational to

today
DATE

’s developer experience, we’re now seeing evidence of the mainstream emergence of

AI
ORG

. In

the past year alone
DATE

, a staggering

92%
PERCENT

of developers have reported using

AI
ORG

-based coding tools, both inside and outside of work.

This past year
DATE

has also seen an explosive surge in AI experimentation across various open source projects hosted on GitHub.

We leave you with

three
CARDINAL

takeaways:

GitHub is the developer platform for generative AI. Generative AI evolved from a specialist field into mainstream technology in

2023
DATE

—and an explosion of activity in open source reflects that. As more developers build and experiment with generative AI, they’re using GitHub to collaborate and collectively learn. Developers are operating cloud-native applications at scale on GitHub. In

2019
DATE

, we started to see a big jump in the number of developers using container-based technologies in open source—and the rate at which developers are increasingly using Git-based

IaC
ORG

workflows, container orchestration, and other cloud-native technologies sharply increased in

2023
DATE

. This enormous amount of activity shows that developers are using GitHub to standardize how they deploy software to the cloud. GitHub is where open source communities, developers, and companies are building software. In

2023
DATE

, we saw a

38%
PERCENT

increase in the number of private repositories—which account for

more than 81%
PERCENT

of all activity on GitHub. But we are seeing continued growth in the open source communities who are using GitHub to build what’s next and push the industry forward. With the data showing the increase in new open source developers and the rapid pace of innovation that is possible in open communities, it’s clear that open source has never been stronger.

Methodology

This report draws on anonymized user and product data taken from GitHub from

October 1, 2022 through September 30, 2023
DATE

. We define AI projects on GitHub by

683
CARDINAL

repository topic terms, which you can learn more about in research we conducted in

2023
DATE

(page

25
CARDINAL

to be exact). We also evaluate open source projects by a metric we call “

Mona Rank
PERSON

,” which is a rank-based analysis of the community size and popularity of projects.

More data is publicly available on

the GitHub Innovation Graph
ORG

—a research tool GitHub offers for organizations and individuals curious about the state of software development across GitHub.

For a complete methodology, please contact [email protected].

Glossary


2023
DATE

: a year in this report is

the last 365 days
DATE

from the last

Octoverse
PERSON

release and ranges from

10/1/2022
CARDINAL

to

9/30/2023
CARDINAL

.

a year in this report is

the last 365 days
DATE

from the last

Octoverse
PERSON

release and ranges from

10/1/2022
CARDINAL

to

9/30/2023
CARDINAL

. Developers: developers are individual, not-spammy user accounts on GitHub.

developers are individual, not-spammy user accounts on

GitHub
ORG

. Public projects: any project on GitHub that is publicly available for others to contribute to, fork, clone, or engage with.

any project on GitHub that is publicly available for others to contribute to, fork, clone, or engage with. Open Source Projects and Communities: open source projects are public repositories with an open source license.

open source projects are public repositories with an open source license. Location: geographic information is based on the last known network location of individual users and organization profiles. We only study anonymized and aggregated location data, and never look at location data beyond the geographic region and country.

geographic information is based on the last known network location of individual users and organization profiles. We only study anonymized and aggregated location data, and never look at location data beyond the geographic region and country. Organizations: organization accounts represent groups of people on GitHub that can be paid or free and big or small.

organization accounts represent groups of people on GitHub that can be paid or free and big or small. Projects and Repositories: we use repositories and projects interchangeably, but recognize that larger projects can sometimes span multiple repositories.

Notes